구조 미학에 대한 권위자인 David Billington 교수는 그의 저서 The Tower and The Bridge에서 아름다운 구조물이 갖추어야 할 특성을 3개의 dimensions, 3S – Scientific, Social and Symbolic 으로 정의하며, 이 3가지 dimensions을 가름하는 척도로서 각각 3E – Efficiency, Economy and Elegance를 언급한다.
Scientific Dimension – efficiency ;
Social Dimension – economy ;
Symbolic Dimension – structure’s elegance & expressive power
“There are three types of designers who work with forms in space: the engineer, the architect, and the sculptor. In making a form, each designer must consider the three dimensions or criteria (scientific, social, symbolic)… The first, or scientific criterion, essentially comes down to making structures with a minimum of materials and yet with enough resistance to loads and environment so that they will last… The second, or social criterion, comprises mainly analyses of costs as compared to the usefulness of the forms by society… Finally, the third criterion, the symbolic, consists of studies in appearance, along with a consideration of how elegance can be achieved within the constraints set by the scientific and social criteria… For the structural designer the scientific criterion is primary (as is the social criterion for the architect and the symbolic criterion for the sculptor). Yet the structural designer must balance the primary criterion with the other two…” [The Tower and The Bridge, p17]
그래서 그가 Robert Maillart를 위대한 교량기술자의 한 사람으로 뽑는 이유이다.
“Structural art, coming from the imagination of the engineer, has three basic ideals: efficiency, economy and elegance. For Maillart, efficiency meant the use of as little material concrete and steel) as possible consistent with a large margin of safety. Economy, for Maillart, implied competitive construction costs as well as relative freedom from maintenance… In structural art, elegance is not achieved by giving up the disciplines of minimum materials and competitive costs in favor of some separate search for beauty… Maillart never did such things. Elegance comes from within the disciplines; Maillart played with his forms to refine them and to enliven them without adding to cost or materials…” [Robert Maillart and The Art of Reinforced Concrete]
인터넷 검색을 통해 3S & 3E를 잘 정리한 내용을 옮긴다.
- Honesty to State-of-the-art to local engineering and technology
- Adhering to the rules of Design Process
- Training and skills of the Construction Personnel
- Diligent maintenance and inspection
- Social Dimension
- Political Pressure by over-achieving officials
- Economic Pressure due to short and long-range economic development plan
- Local’s ego to have the first kind, the tallest, the longest or the largest structure
- Forced to conform to the land use plan
- Symbolic Dimension
- Bridge as a public fixture for everyone
- Bridge as the identity of a locality
- Crossing a large body of water-source of relaxation, recreation, and a peaceful background